Ganoderma lucidum inhibits tumour cell proliferation and induces tumour cell death
Yi-Zhen Xie a,1, Sen-Zhu Li a,1, Albert Yee c, David P. La Pierre c,d, Zhaoqun Deng c, Daniel Y. Lee c,d, Qing-Ping Wu a, Qi Chen a, Chong Li a, Zhi Zhang a, Jun Guo a, Zide Jiang b, Burton B. Yang c,d,∗
a Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, 100 Central Xian-Lie Road, Guangzhou, China
b Department of Plant Pathology, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wu-Shan Road, Guangzhou, China
c Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Canada M4N 3M5
d Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada
Received 18 March 2005; received in revised form 8 October 2005; accepted 11 October 2005
Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional Chinese medicinal fungus, has been a favourite remedy in oriental medicine for centuries. The objective of this study is to analyze whether G. lucidum affects cancer cell proliferation and cell death. Malignant human breast carcinoma cells were used in our studies. Different preparations of G. lucidum spores were added to the cancer cells at a final concentration of 1 mg/ml followed by incubation of the cultures for two days. Treatment with G. lucidum resulted in tumour cells detachment from the tissue culture plates and death. The proliferation of the adherent cells was also inhibited. The experiments indicated that the inhibitory effects of G. lucidum on cancer cell growth were sporoderm-broken spores (broken by enzymatic method) > sporoderm-broken spores (broken by physical method) > intact spores > buffer control....
Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin
Sufen Zhao1,2, Gang Ye1 , Guodong Fu1 , Jian-Xin Cheng3 , Burton B. Yang4 and Chun Peng1
1 Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Canada; 2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University; 3 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, P.R. China; 4 Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Canada
Received December 7, 2010; Accepted January 10, 2011 DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2011.965
Ganoderma lucidum is a herbal mushroom known to have many health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. However, the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the most fatal gynecological malignancy, has not yet been reported. In this study, we determined whether Ganoderma lucidum regulates EOC cell activity. Using several cell lines derived from EOC, we found that Ganoderma lucidum strongly decreased cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and spheroid formation. In particular, Ganoderma lucidum was effective in inhibiting cell growth in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and the treatment with Ganoderma lucidum significantly enhanced the effect of cisplatin on EOC cells. Furthermore, Ganoderma lucidum induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and also induced apoptosis by activating caspase 3. Finally, Ganoderma lucidum increased p53 but inhibited Akt expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of EOC cells to cisplatin.
The effect of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil in early skin wound healing: interactions of skin microbiota and inflammation
Skin is the body’s largest and most exposed organ. It is the first line of the body’s immunological defense against various forms of attack from external environment . Following skin injury, an organism needs to rapidly restore itself to avoid dehydration, blood loss and the entrance of harmful microorganisms . Burns damage the skin extensively and have been studied for centuries, with thermal burns from dry sources (fire or flame) or wet sources (scalds) accounting for approximately 80% of all reported burn injuries . Approximately 180,000 deaths annually are caused by burns; the vast majority occur in low- and middle-income countries . Severe burn injury leads to a clear systemic inflammatory response that has been reported in human subjects [5, 6]. However, low public hygiene measures in low- and middle-income countries might lead to secondary bacterial infections. Therefore, antibiotics (ANT) for an anti-inflammatory effect are needed. Unfortunately, increased microbial drug resistance is being caused by widespread ANT use, leading to poor treatment efficacy in burn wound healing. Moreover, scar tissue formation after burn injury can also lead to long-term psychosocial consequences . Therefore, effective and healthy treatments for burn wound healing are necessary for clinical therapy....
Anti-tumor and Anti-angiogenic Ergosterols from Ganoderma lucidum
Shaodan Chen1,2, Tianqiao Yong1,2, Yifang Zhang1,2, Jiyan Su1,2, Chunwei Jiao2 and Yizhen Xie1,2*
1Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology, Guangzhou, China
2Yuewei Edible Fungi Technology Co. Ltd., Guangzhou, China
This study was carried out to isolate chemical constituents from the lipid enriched fraction of Ganoderma lucidum extract and to evaluate their anti-proliferative effect on tumor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Ergosterol derivatives (1–14) were isolated and purified from the lipid enriched fraction of G. lucidum. Their chemical structures were established by spectroscopic analyses or by comparison of mass and NMR spectral data with those reported previously. Amongst, compound 1 was purified and identified as a new one. All the compounds were evaluated for their anti-proliferative effect on human tumor cells and HUVECs in vitro. Compounds 9–13 displayed inhibitory activity against two types of human tumor cells and HUVECs, which indicated that these four compounds had both anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis activities. Compound 2 had significant selective inhibition against two tumor cell lines, while 3 exhibited selective inhibition against HUVECs. The structure–activity relationships for inhibiting human HepG2 cells were revealed by 3D-QASR. Ergosterol content in different parts of the raw material and products of G. lucidum was quantified. This study provides a basis for further development and utilization of ergosterol derivatives as natural nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients, or as source of new potential antitumor or anti-angiogenesis chemotherapy agent.
The present invention relates to a method for preparing Ganoderma spore oil which is in the field of biotechnology. The method includes using Ganoderma spore powder and Ganoderma powder (obtained from grinding fruiting bodies) as raw materials, applying enzymatic Ganoderma sporoderm broken methods, one-step granulation, supercritical CO2 extraction method, as well as centrifugation and refining. The light yellow oleaginous substances obtained posses a variety of physiological functions such as strengthening immunity, protecting the liver and inhibiting tumor cell growth, etc. Ganoderma spore oil prepared with the present technology contains not only spore extracts, but also extracts from Ganoderma fruiting bodies and mycelium by CO2 supercritical extraction, with more types of triterpenoids. The inhibitory effects of Ganoderma spore oil is a onefold higher than spore oil prepared from the physical preparation of the sporoderm-broken spore. Meanwhile, the problem of spore oil spoilage arising from oxidation is solved due to the low peroxide value within Ganoderma spore oil, and thereby the quality of Ganoderma spore oil is greatly improved.
In vitro effects of Ganoderma lucidum spore oil on apoptosis in breast cancer cells—Cell viability assay and FACS analyses data
Chunwei Jiaoa,b, Wang Chena, Xupeng Tana, Huijia Lianga, Jieyi Li a, Hao Yuna, Chunyan Hea, Jiaming Chena, Xiaowei Maa, Yizhen Xiea,b,*, Burton B. Yangc,*
a.Guangdong Yuewei Edible Fungi Technology Co., Ltd., Guangzhou 510663, P. R. China
b.State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070, P. R. China
c.Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto M4N 3M5, Canada. Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A8, Canada, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A8, Canada.
Yizhen Xie: email@example.com
Burton B. Yang: firstname.lastname@example.org
The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a traditional Chinese medicine reported to have a variety of pharmacological properties, including anti-cancer activity[1,2]. G. lucidum spore oil (GLSO) is a lipid substance extracted from sporoderm-broken spore of G. lucidum. Here, Data were provided on the effect of GLSO on apoptosis in breast cancer cells in vitro.
The anti-cancer components of Ganoderma lucidum possesses cardiovascular protective effect by regulating circular RNA expression
Yi-Zhen Xie1,2,*, Fenghua Yang3,*, Weijiang Tan3, Xiangmin Li1,4, Chunwei Jiao2, Ren Huang3, Burton B. Yang4,5
1 State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou, China
2 Guangdong Yuewei Edible Fungi Technology Co. Ltd., Guangzhou, China
3 Guangdong Laboratory Animals Monitoring Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Laboratory Animals, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China
4 Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada
5 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Received: June 14, 2016 Accepted: August 12, 2016 Published: August 28, 2016
Enclosed below link to Article:
Complementary and alternative medicines have attracted increasing attention as disease treatments, adjuvants, and alternative supplements [1-4]. Medicinal mushrooms comprise a large proportion of these alternative products, among which Ganoderma lucidum is the most highly studied [5-8]. Preclinical studies have demonstrated anti-tumorigenic roles in a range of medicinal mushrooms [9-11]. A Cochrane meta- analysis showed that patients who had been administered Ganoderma lucidum alongside chemo/radiotherapy were more likely to respond positively compared to chemo/radiotherapy alone. These trials demonstrated improved immune functions as measured by increased CD3, CD4, and CD8 immune response cells . In vitro, Ganoderma lucidum was also found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in ovarian, colon, and gastric cancer cell lines [13-15]. Ganoderma lucidum contains beta glucans and other polysaccharides which stimulate innate immunity and activate host dendritic cells [16, 17]. Ganoderma lucidum also produces a group of ganoderic acids, which have molecular structures that are similar to steroids [18, 19].
Ergosterol Peroxide Isolated from Ganoderma lucidum Abolishes MicroRNA miR-378-Mediated Tumor Cells on Chemoresistance
Cancer frequently relapses after chemo-therapy due to the presence of highly proliferative cells as well as tumor stem cells, which are drug resistant in malignant tumors. Some cancer cells can undergo unlimited self-renewal, invade new territory, initiate new tumors, and are resistant to chemotherapy, as a result of deregulated expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Recent studies indicate that the expression of these genes is largely regulated by a subset of RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) , . Expression of miRNAs is deregulated in cancer and drug-resistant cells.
The effects of ergosterol peroxide on tumor cell death. (a) NMR analysis of the structure of the candidate. (b) Molecular structure, formula and molecular weight of ergosterol peroxide. (c) The MT-1 cells treated with or without ergosterol peroxide were fixed, and stained with the Diff-Quik-Stain kit, followed by microscopic examination and counting of cells survived. Induction of breast cancer cell death by ergosterol peroxide was concentration dependent (Upper). ** 0,0.01, n = 3. Typical vacuoles were detected in the cells treated with ergosterol peroxide (Lower). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044579.g007
Enclosed abstract from (Front. Pharmacol., 26 March 2019 (https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00272) (1)
Alcohol Extracts From Ganoderma lucidum Delay the Progress of Alzheimer’s Disease by Regulating DNA Methylation in Rodents
Guoxiao Lai1,2†, Yinrui Guo2†, Diling Chen2*, Xiaocui Tang2, Ou Shuai2, Tianqiao Yong2, Dongdong Wang2, Chun Xiao2, Gailian Zhou1, Yizhen Xie2*, Burton B. Yang2,3 and Qingping Wu2
1College of Pharmacy, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, China
2State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China – Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application – Guangdong Open Laboratory of Applied Microbiology – Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou, China
3Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
“… Age-related changes in methylation are involved in the occurrence and development of tumors, autoimmune disease, and nervous system disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in elderly individuals; hence, modulation of these methylation changes may be an effective strategy to delay the progression of AD pathology…. “Auxiliary tests also demonstrated that G. lucidum alcohol extracts could improve learning and memory function, ameliorate neuronal apoptosis and brain atrophy, and down-regulate the expression of the AD intracellular marker, Aβ1-42. We concluded that alcohol extracts from G. lucidum, including ganoderic acid and lucidone A, are the main extracts involved in delaying AD progression…”(1)